Stanford Prison Experiment Entwicklung der Untersuchung
Das Stanford-Prison-Experiment war ein psychologisches Experiment zur Erforschung menschlichen Verhaltens unter den Bedingungen der Gefangenschaft, speziell unter den Feldbedingungen des echten Gefängnislebens. Das Stanford-Prison-Experiment (deutsch: das Stanford-Gefängnis-Experiment) war ein psychologisches Experiment zur Erforschung menschlichen Verhaltens. Die Freiwilligen. Was die Verdächtigten getan hatten, war, auf eine lokale Zeitungsanzeige zu antworten, in der Freiwillige für eine Studie über die psychischen. Das Stanford-Prison-Experiment steht in der Kritik. Die Forscher sollen zu Härte animiert haben. Kritik am Stanford Prison Experiment von Philip Zimbardo wird laut. Forschende fordern, dass die Studie überprüft wird.
Das Stanford-Prison-Experiment (deutsch: das Stanford-Gefängnis-Experiment) war ein psychologisches Experiment zur Erforschung menschlichen Verhaltens. Das Stanford-Prison-Experiment steht in der Kritik. Die Forscher sollen zu Härte animiert haben. Philip Zimbardo mit seiner Maskensammlung. (Foto: The NewYorkTimes/Redux/laif). Das Stanford-Prison-Experiment gilt als einer der.
You can't quit. The next day, the guards held a visiting hour for parents and friends. They were worried that when the parents saw the state of the jail, they might insist on taking their sons home.
Guards washed the prisoners, had them clean and polish their cells, fed them a big dinner and played music on the intercom. After the visit, rumor spread of a mass escape plan.
Afraid that they would lose the prisoners, the guards and experimenters tried to enlist the help and facilities of the Palo Alto police department.
The guards again escalated the level of harassment, forcing them to do menial, repetitive work such as cleaning toilets with their bare hands.
Zimbardo invited a Catholic priest who had been a prison chaplain to evaluate how realistic our prison situation was.
Half of the prisoners introduced themselves by their number rather than name. The chaplain interviewed each prisoner individually.
The priest told them the only way they would get out was with the help of a lawyer. Eventually while talking to the priest, broke down and began to cry hysterically, just two previously released prisoners had.
The psychologists removed the chain from his foot, the cap off his head, and told him to go and rest in a room that was adjacent to the prison yard.
They told him they would get him some food and then take him to see a doctor. While this was going on, one of the guards lined up the other prisoners and had them chant aloud:.
The psychologists realized could hear the chanting and went back into the room where they found him sobbing uncontrollably. The psychologists tried to get him to agree to leave the experiment, but he said he could not leave because the others had labeled him a bad prisoner.
Zimbardo had intended that the experiment should run for two weeks, but on the sixth day it was terminated, due to the emotional breakdowns of prisoners, and excessive aggression of the guards.
Christina Maslach, a recent Stanford Ph. Filled with outrage, she said, "It's terrible what you are doing to these boys! According to Zimbardo and his colleagues, the Stanford Prison Experiment revealed how people will readily conform to the social roles they are expected to play, especially if the roles are as strongly stereotyped as those of the prison guards.
Because the guards were placed in a position of authority, they began to act in ways they would not usually behave in their normal lives.
Therefore, the findings support the situational explanation of behavior rather than the dispositional one. Deindividuation may explain the behavior of the participants; especially the guards.
This is a state when you become so immersed in the norms of the group that you lose your sense of identity and personal responsibility.
The guards may have been so sadistic because they did not feel what happened was down to them personally — it was a group norm.
The also may have lost their sense of personal identity because of the uniform they wore. Also, learned helplessness could explain the prisoner's submission to the guards.
The prisoners learned that whatever they did had little effect on what happened to them. In the mock prison the unpredictable decisions of the guards led the prisoners to give up responding.
After the prison experiment was terminated, Zimbardo interviewed the participants. The research had felt "real" to them. One guard said, "I was surprised at myself.
I made them call each other names and clean the toilets out with their bare hands. I practically considered the prisoners cattle and I kept thinking I had to watch out for them in case they tried something.
Another guard said "Acting authoritatively can be fun. Power can be a great pleasure. He grabbed me by the throat and although he was laughing I was pretty scared.
I lashed out with my stick and hit him on the chin although not very hard, and when I freed myself I became angry.
Most of the guards found it difficult to believe that they had behaved in the brutalizing ways that they had. Several claimed to be assertive types normally.
When asked about the guards, they described the usual three stereotypes that can be found in any prison: some guards were good, some were tough but fair, and some were cruel.
Demand characteristics could explain the findings of the study. Most of the guards later claimed they were simply acting.
Because the guards and prisoners were playing a role, their behavior may not be influenced by the same factors which affect behavior in real life.
This means the study's findings cannot be reasonably generalized to real life, such as prison settings. However, there is considerable evidence that the participants did react to the situation as though it was real.
The guards were always on time and even worked overtime for no extra pay. When the prisoners were introduced to a priest, they referred to themselves by their prison number, rather than their first name.
Some even asked him to get a lawyer to help get them out. The study may also lack population validity as the sample comprised US male students.
The study's findings cannot be applied to female prisons or those from other countries. For example, America is an individualist culture were people are generally less conforming and the results may be different in collectivist cultures such as Asian countries.
A strength of the study is that it has altered the way US prisons are run. For example, juveniles accused of federal crimes are no longer housed before trial with adult prisoners due to the risk of violence against them.
Another strength of the study is that the harmful treatment of participant led to the formal recognition of ethical guidelines by the American Psychological Association.
Studies must now undergo an extensive review by an institutional review board US or ethics committee UK before they are implemented.
A review of research plans by a panel is required by most institutions such as universities, hospitals, and government agencies.
These boards review whether the potential benefits of the research are justifiable in the light of the possible risk of physical or psychological harm.
These boards may request researchers make changes to the study's design or procedure, or in extreme cases deny approval of the study altogether.
The study has received many ethical criticisms, including lack of fully informed consent by participants as Zimbardo himself did not know what would happen in the experiment it was unpredictable.
Also, the prisoners did not consent to being 'arrested' at home. Participants playing the role of prisoners were not protected from psychological harm, experiencing incidents of humiliation and distress.
For example, one prisoner had to be released after 36 hours because of uncontrollable bursts of screaming, crying and anger.
However, in Zimbardo's defense, the emotional distress experienced by the prisoners could not have been predicted from the outset.
Alternative methodologies were looked at which would cause less distress to the participants but at the same time give the desired information, but nothing suitable could be found.
Extensive group and individual debriefing sessions were held, and all participants returned post-experimental questionnaires several weeks, then several months later, then at yearly intervals.
Zimbardo concluded there were no lasting negative effects. Zimbardo also strongly argues that the benefits gained about our understanding of human behavior and how we can improve society should out balance the distress caused by the study.
However, it has been suggested that the US Navy was not so much interested in making prisons more human and were, in fact, more interested in using the study to train people in the armed services to cope with the stresses of captivity.
What are the effects of living in an environment with no clocks, no view of the outside world, and minimal sensory stimulation?
Consider the psychological consequences of stripping, delousing, and shaving the heads of prisoners or members of the military. What transformations take place when people go through an experience like this?
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The students in the position of guards were physically brutal to the students who were deindividuated as prisoners, so much so that the….
Social psychology , the scientific study of the behaviour of individuals in their social and cultural setting. Although the term may be taken to include the social activity of laboratory animals or those in the wild, the emphasis here is on human social behaviour.
Once a relatively speculative, intuitive enterprise, social psychology…. Prison , an institution for the confinement of persons who have been remanded held in custody by a judicial authority or who have been deprived of their liberty following conviction for a crime.
A person found guilty of a felony or a misdemeanour may be required to serve a prison sentence. History at your fingertips.
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