Mosasaurus ist eine Gattung der Mosasaurier, einer ausgestorbenen Familie großer Meeresreptilien aus der Zeit der Oberkreide. Die Gattung war namensgebend für die Mosasauridae, Schuppenkriechtiere, die hochgradig an eine aquatische Lebensweise. Mosasaurus („Echse von der Maas“) ist eine Gattung der Mosasaurier (Mosasauridae), einer ausgestorbenen Familie großer Meeresreptilien aus der Zeit der. Ernährung[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]. Mosasaurus hoffmannii. Das Gebiss der Mosasaurier lässt darauf schließen, dass sich Mosasaurier speziell von. Mattel FNG24 - Jurassic World Dinosaurier Spielzeug Mosasaurus mit real feel Dinohaut: e-dev.se: Spielzeug. Suchergebnis auf e-dev.se für: Mosasaurus.
Mosasaurus („Echse von der Maas“) ist eine Gattung der Mosasaurier (Mosasauridae), einer ausgestorbenen Familie großer Meeresreptilien aus der Zeit der. Ein Mosasaurus im Jahr auf Isla Nublar. So entstanden unter anderem Projekte zur Erschaffung von Mosasauriern, darunter mindestens einem Tylosaurus. Suchergebnis auf e-dev.se für: Mosasaurus.
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There are two finely ulcerated scratches on the bone callus, which may have been developed as part of the healing process. Specimen IRSNB R27 has two fractures: one has almost fully healed and the other is an open fracture with nearby teeth broken off, which is likely associated with the dentary fracture.
The fracture is covered with a nonunion formation of bony callus with shallow scratch marks and a large pit connected to an abscess canal.
Both specimens show signs of deep bacterial infection alongside the fractures; some bacteria may have spread to nearby damaged teeth and caused tooth decay , which may have entered deeper tissue from prior post-traumatic or secondary infections.
However, the conditions of the dentaries anterior to the fractures in both specimens are in good condition, indicating that the arteries and trigeminal nerves had not been damaged; if they were, those areas would have necrotized due to a lack of blood.
The dentaries' condition suggests that the individuals may have had an efficient process of immobilization of the fracture during healing, which likely helped prevent damage to vital blood vessels and nerves.
This, along with signs of healing, also signifies that the fractures were not imminently fatal.
The cause of these injuries cannot be determined for certain, but two possibilities exist: One possibility may have been collateral damage from a bite on a hard surface such as a turtle shell, which would have caused intensified stress on the jawbones; another possibility is damage inflicted by another individual during intraspecific combat.
The pit in IRSNB R27 has been described to resemble a tooth mark, which gives the possibility that such was the location of an attack by another mosasaur.
In , paleontologists led by Anne Schulp of Utrecht University published a study describing a fossil quadrate of M. The bone was extensively damaged, had multiple unnatural openings, and an estimated half-liter of bone tissue destroyed.
It is likely that this was the result of a severe case of osteomyelitis initiated by septic arthritis , which progressed to the point that a large portion of the quadrate was reduced to voids of abscess.
Extensive amounts of bone reparative tissue were also present, suggesting that the infection and subsequent healing process may have progressed for a few months.
This level of bone infection would have likely been tremendously painful and severely hampered the mosasaur's ability to use its jaws.
The location of the infection may likely have also interfered with respiration. Considering that the individual was able to survive such conditions for an extended period of time, it is likely that it switched to a foraging-type diet subsidizing on soft-bodied prey such as squid that could be swallowed whole to minimize jaw usage.
The cause of the infection currently remains speculative, but if it were a result of an intraspecific attack then it is possible that one of the openings on the quadrate may have been the point of entry for an attacker's tooth from which the infection entered.
Avascular necrosis has been reported by many studies to be invariably present in M. This indicates that both Mosasaurus species may have either been frequent deep-divers or repetitive divers.
Paleontologist Agnete Weinreich Carlsen of the University of Copenhagen commented that it would be frugal to consider the appearance of such conditions being due to non-adaptation in the animal's original state, as fossils of other mosasaurs that also invariably suffer avascular necrosis show evidence of developed eardrums that protected itself from rapid changes in pressure.
Excluding the Pacific species unassessed by Street and Caldwell and identified as separate genera in Street , Mosasaurus was a transatlantic mosasaur with its fossils having been found in deposits at or nearby both sides of the Atlantic Ocean.
In recent studies, the confirmation of paleogeographical affinities extends this range to areas across the Atlantic including Brazil and the East Coast state of New Jersey.
It is geographically subdivided into two biogeographic provinces that respectively include the northern and southern Tethyan margins.
From an ecological view, the two mosasaurs Mosasaurus and Prognathodon appear to be the dominant taxa in the entire seaway, being very widespread and ecologically diversified throughout the Mediterranean Tethys.
At the time, Europe was a scattering of islands with most of the modern continental landmass being underwater.
The northern Tethyan margin provides a warm-temperate climate that was dominated by mosasaurs and sea turtles. Sea turtles such as Allopleurodon hoffmanni and Glyptochelone suickerbuycki also dominated the area and other marine reptiles including undetermined elasmosaurs have been occasionally known.
Marine reptile assemblages in the New Jersey region of the province are generally equivalent with those in Europe; mosasaur fauna are quite similar but exclude M.
Located around what is now Africa, Arabia, the Levant, and Brazil, seabeds bordering the cratons in Africa and Arabia provided vast shallow marine environments.
These environments were also dominated by mosasaurs and marine side-necked turtles. Of the mosasaurs, Globidens phosphaticus is the characteristic species of the southern province; in the African and Arabian domain, Halisaurus arambourgi and Platecarpus' ptychodon were also the dominant mosasaurs.
Other marine reptiles such as the marine monitor lizard Pachyvaranus and sea snake Palaeophis are known there.
Aside from Zarafasaura in Morocco, plesiosaurs were scarce. As a tropical area, bony fish such as Enchodus and Stratodus and various sharks were common throughout the southern Tethyan margin.
Many of the earliest fossils of Mosasaurus were found in Campanian deposits in North America, including what was once the Western Interior Seaway, an inland sea that flowed through what is now the central United States and Canada and connected the Arctic Ocean to the modern-day Gulf of Mexico.
The oceanic climate of the Northern Interior Subprovince was likely a cool temperate one, while the Southern Interior Subprovince had warm temperate to subtropical climates.
During this age, the Northern Interior Subprovince was dominated by plesiosaurs, hesperornithid seabirds , and the mosasaur genus Platecarpus ; and the Southern Interior Subprovince, which was much more diverse than the north in all groups, was dominated by sharks, turtles, and a large diversity of mosasaurs including Tylosaurus and Clidastes.
The appearance of M. The Northern Interior Subprovince also saw a restructuring of mosasaur assemblages by the beginning of the Navesinkan Age, characterized by the disappearance of mosasaurs like Platecarpus and their replacement by Mosasaurus and Plioplatecarpus.
These additional genera included sea turtles such as Protostega  and Archelon ;  many species of sea birds including Baptornis ,  Ichthyornis , and Halimornis ; crocodilians such as Deinosuchus ; and many genera of fish including sharks such as Cretalamna , Squalicorax , the goblin shark Scapanorhynchus , Pseudocorax , the sand tiger Odontaspis , Serratolamna , and the saw shark Ischyrhiza ; and bony fish such as Enchodus , Protosphyraena , Stratodus , and the ichthyodectids Xiphactinus and Saurodon.
Being within the Antarctic polar circle , the Seymour Island locality likely provided a rather unique climate. Nevertheless, these estimated climates characterize subpolar to cool temperate environments.
At least two species of Mosasaurus have been described in Seymour Island, but the true number of species is unknown as remains are often fragmentary and specimens are described in open nomenclature.
These species include one comparable with M. A number of Mosasaurus fossils known in the locality are considered too fragmentary to be identified to the species level.
Nevertheless, the genus appears to be the most taxonomically diverse in the Maastrichtian Antarctica. Mosasaurus is not the only mosasaur from Seymour Island; at least four other genera have been found in similar or same deposits.
These include Plioplatecarpus , the mosasaurines Moanasaurus and Liodon ,  and the tylosaurine Kaikaifilu. Of the remaining percentages, sand sharks made up A traditional method of determining the habitat preference of fossil animals is by determining the habitat represented by the deposits they were from.
Known fossils of Mosasaurus have typically been recovered from deposits that represented nearshore habitats during the Cretaceous period, with some fossils coming from deeper water deposits.
Changing temperatures and an abundance in marine life were characteristic of these localities. The morphological build of M. It had likely resided near the surface and exploited the rich marine assemblages provided by the locality.
This was tested on multiple Mosasaurus fossils in multiple studies which have yielded consistent results signifying that Mosasaurus fed in more offshore or open waters.
Lynn Harrell Jr. Previous studies have demonstrated that ratios in these three elements can act as a proxy for relative ocean depth of a fossil during early diagenesis without interference from biological processes, with each of the three elements signifying either shallow, deep, fresh, or highly saline waters.
Mosasaurus was contemporaneous with other large predatory mosasaurs that were also considered apex predators, most prominent among them being the tylosaurines and Prognathodon.
A study published in led by Schulp specifically tested how mosasaurs such as M. The scientists utilized an interpretation that differences in isotope values can help explain the level of resource partitioning due to the contributions of multiple environmental factors such as lifestyle, diet, and habitat preference in determining such.
The morphological builds of the two species help add to the context of this finding. The teeth of P.
While M. The study found a dietary divide between M. Stomach contents of P. In contrast, M. It was hypothesized that these adaptations were developed specifically to ensure resource partitioning between the two types of mosasaurs.
However, this evidently did not entirely prevent competitive engagement. As with intraspecific combat amongst Mosasaurus individuals, there is also evidence of aggressive interspecific combat between Mosasaurus and other large mosasaur species, as shown from a fossil skull of a subadult M.
This sort of attack has been compared to the defensive behavior of bottlenose dolphins using their beaks to kill or repel lemon sharks , and it has been speculated that T.
With the enormous known diets of Tylosaurus , it has been loosely implied that this may have been motivated for food or territorial defense.
By the end of the Cretaceous, mosasaurs like Mosasaurus were at a height of radiation , and their extinction was a sudden and unexpected event.
The genus endured by accessing new habitats in more open waters. Vertebra fossils from the layer were found with post-mortem fractures and the deposition of the layer itself was likely the result of a tsunamite, alternatively nicknamed the "Cretaceous cocktail deposit"; it was formed as a result of a combination of catastrophic seismic and geological disturbances, mega-hurricanes, and giant tsunamis as direct consequences of the impact of the Chicxulub asteroid.
Aside from the physical kinetic destruction of these events, the impact also had subsequent environmental reverberations like blocking out sunlight that led to a collapse of marine food webs.
Any Mosasaurus that may have survived the immediate cataclysms by taking refuge in deeper waters would have eventually died out due to starvation from a total loss of prey structure.
One enigmatic occurrence is of Mosasaurus fossils found in the Hornerstown Formation, a deposit that is typically dated to be from the Paleocene Danian age, which was immediately after the Maastrichtian age.
The discoveries have been found with an association of fossils of Squalicorax , Enchodus , and various ammonites within a uniquely fossil-rich bed at the base of the Hornerstown Formation known as the Main Fossiliferous Layer.
This does not mean that Mosasaurus and its associated fauna may have survived the K-Pg extinction; there are several possible explanations as to why these animals have been found in nominally Cenozoic deposits.
One argument proposes the fossils actually originated from an earlier Cretaceous deposit that was reworked into the Paleocene formation during its early deposition.
Evidence of reworking typically comes from fossils that are worn down due to further erosion during its exposure at the time of its redeposition.
Many of the Mosasaurus fossils from the Main Fossiliferous Layer consist of isolated bones that are commonly abraded and worn; however, the layer also yielded fresher Mosasaurus remains.
A third hypothesis proposes a representation of a lag deposit of Cretaceous sediments that were forced out by a strong impact event such as a tsunami and was subsequently refilled with Cenozoic fossils.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Mesosaurus. Extinct genus of marine squamate reptile from the Late Cretaceous.
Temporal range: Campanian - Maastrichtian , Mantell , Species pending reassessment. List of synonyms.
Synonyms of genus  . Synonyms of M. Moanasaurus hobetsuensis nov. Antipodinectes mokoroa nov. Umikosaurus prismaticus nov.
Aktisaurus conodon nov. An examination of existing historical evidence by Pieters et al. Later authors began to drop the final letter and spelled it as hoffmanni , as became the trend for specific epithets of similar structure in later years.
However, recent scientists argue that the special etymological makeup of hoffmannii cannot be subjected to International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Articles This makes hoffmannii the valid spelling, although hoffmanni continues to be incorrectly used by many authors.
However, scientists have expressed likeliness that this specimen belongs to a different species. Ogg; L. Hinnov The Geologic Time Scale Gallagher Netherlands Journal of Geosciences.
The Mosasaur. Obasi; Dennis O. Terry Jr. Myer; David E. Grandstaff Journal of Sedimentary Research. Bibcode : JSedR.. Street; Michael W.
Caldwell Geological Magazine. Bibcode : GeoM.. Cretaceous Reptiles of the United States. Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge.
Street University of Alberta. Harrell Jr. Martin Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Caldwell; G. Bell Jr. Ikejiri; S. Lucas Netherlands Journal of Geosciences - Geologie en Mijnbouw.
Beschrijving der beenderen van den kop van eenen visch, gevonden in den St Pietersberg bij Maastricht, en geplaatst in Teylers Museum in Dutch.
Verhandelingen Teylers Tweede Genootschap. Oceans of Kansas. Archived from the original on Retrieved Rompen; John W. Jagt; Nathalie Bardet Peter's Mountain near Maestricht".
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Pieters Napoleon's legacy: the rise of national museums in Europe, PDF.
Maastricht Cretaceous finds and Dutch pioneers in vertebrate palaeontology. Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Archives of Natural History.
Geological Society, London, Special Publications. Everhart Indiana University Press. Buckland, in the same locality".
Muler Geologie en Mijnbouw. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. Proceedings of the Geological Society of London.
American Naturalist. Dinosauria On-line. Paleontological Journal. Fernandez; Marianella Talevi; Juan M. Leardi; Marcelo A.
Reguero Plotosaurini paleogeographic occurrences". Cretaceous Research. Russell Systematics and morphology of American mosasaurs PDF. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History.
Historical Biology : 1— Bouya; M. Amaghzaz Historical Biology. Leblanc; Michael W. Caldwell; Nathalie Bardet Vertebrate Anatomy Morphology Palaeontology.
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Sites, Jr. Wiens Bibcode : PLoSO.. Ancient Marine Reptiles. Academic Press. Grigoriev Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B.
Schulp; H. Vonhof; J. Janssen; R. Schulp; Michael J. Polcyn; Octavio Mateus; Louis L. New mosasaur material from the Maastrichtian of Angola, with notes on the phylogeny, distribution, and paleoecology of the genus Prognathodon PDF.
Boyd Geo News. North Dakota Geological Society. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. Thomas Polcyn; Bruce A. Young Modern Geology.
Lee; Damien Germain; Michael J. Polcyn Bibcode : PLoSO Suarez Possible thermoregulation of Late Cretaceous mosasaurs Reptilia, Squamata indicated by stable oxygen isotopes in fossil bioapatite in comparison with coeval marine fish and pelagic seabirds".
Bowman; Jane E. Francis; James B. Riding Bibcode : Geo Fernandez; Zulma Gasparini Schulp; Geert H.
Walenkamp; Paul A. Hofman; Yvonne Stuip; Bruce M. Rothschild Robbins Investigating Holocene climate change on the northern Channel Islands and Cretaceous mosasaur ecology using stable isotopes PhD.
Southern Methodist University. Kauffman Bibcode : Palai.. Behlke Sheldon; J. Lamb; J. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science.
Rothschild; L. The Science of Nature. Bibcode : SciNa. Nicholls and Anthony P. Russel Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.
Bibcode : PPP Kemp; Stuart A. Robinson; J. Alistair Crame; Jane E. Francis; on Ineson; Rowan J. Scripta Geologica 8 : — Stanley Earth System History.
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It has four flippers to propel its massive body through the seas. A small, finned ridge runs down the length of its back before developing into a paddle-like tail.
The solitary and territorial Mosasaur is fairly slow-moving, but with its size, it can cover more ground than one might expect, making them adept ambush predators that strike from below to inflict crippling wounds.
This section displays the Mosasaurus's natural colors and regions. For demonstration, the regions below are colored red over an albino Mosasaurus.
The colored squares shown underneath each region's description are the colors that the Mosasaurus will randomly spawn with to provide an overall range of its natural color scheme.
Hover your cursor over a color to display its name and ID. Type in values of a wild creature to see on which stats it's emphasized.
Green values on a high-level creature are very good for breeding. If you have already tamed your creature you can try to recover the breeding-stats with an external tool.
The stat-calculator does not work in the mobile-view, see here for alternatives: Apps. Note that after the creature is tamed it gets bonuses on some stats depending on the taming effectiveness.
This makes it hard to retrieve the levels on a tamed creature, so this tool is only for wild ones , but gives a first impression, how well the stats are distributed.
For general infos about domesticating a wild creature see Taming. They also seem to follow a similar AI as that of the Plesiosaur and be tamed in a similar way.
They don't seem to want to go too high above a certain depth and dive back once they reach it, allowing a person to hit them with arrows to aggro, swim up, and then break aggro.
Repeat and it should be knocked out. Taming a Mosasaur requires the second largest amount of food of any carnivore creature in the game, much more than a Quetzal , and more than double the amount of any other Apex Predator, including the Giganotosaurus.
However, like some other end-game creatures, they can starve all the way down their taming process, giving enough time to gather the meat needed in the moment.
As with other starve-taming, be sure to wait until the torpor level drops and feed narcotics or narcoberries in bulk to keep the Torpor level rising till the max before starting to fall again.
Their consumption speed also assures that no meat will be wasted, as long as the newest meats keep being added to the last slots. It can also be grabbed using a Tusoteuthis , and the torpor from the grab will eventually knock it out.
This will, however, take a very long time. The process can be made faster by shooting it with a tranquilizer arrows from a crossbow, or dragging it close enough to the shore where it can be shot with more powerful tranquilizers.
Be careful not to drag it too close to the shore or out of the water however, or it will die. One of the easiest places to tame a Mosasaur easily is in the ocean biome on Genesis.
Located at the approximate coordinates , there is an underground lake that overlaps with the X-Mosasaur spawning region, and Mosasaurs have been observed spawning in this small body of water despite their inability to move in such limited conditions.
This makes taming them incredibly easy, although they have also been observed attempting to flee when their torpor rises and dying upon beaching themselves.
This small pond also overlaps with the spawning regions of Tusoteuthis and their Alpha variant, and both have also been observed to spawn here.
Note that the values are for optimal cases, always bring extra supplies! For a level-dependent count of resources needed, try an external taming calculator.
The Mosasaurus has the second highest health and damage stat of any aquatic creature. If you encounter one unprepared it is recommended to stay away or swim closer to the surface.
If a confrontation is desired or inevitable, make sure that you can focus solely on the Mosasaurus. These creatures live in the deepest parts of the ocean, so it is very common for other creatures to confront the player at the same time.
Ichthys can sometimes mob the player without a trace of their location, but they are not nearly as aggressive as Megalodons, which sniff out the player from far away and home in when blood is spilled.
Anglers and Mantas patrol the waters, adding more problems to the unprepared player. If the battle is taking place next to a sea cave, the player will almost certainly be dealing with two to three Plesiosaurs.
As always, multiple Mosasaurs can also cause a problem. Player movement speed needs to be at least The Mosasaurus is very tanky, and it will take a lot of damage while also dealing a lot in return.
If you have a very strong Megalodon or Plesiosaur , you will not have too much trouble taking it down. If you don't have a strong creature, you can lure it to an underwater cave and shoot it with a crossbow, as it cannot fit inside.
Be sure the Plesiosaurs nearby don't get the better of you! A crossbow is the most effective weapon to take down a Mosasaurus, but only as a last resort.
The best strategy is to use a combat trained dinosaur such as a Plesiosaur, or simply avoid them. They are humongous, but their dark coloration can take a player by surprise in the dark ocean depths.
Again, it does possess the highest health of any aquatic creature and has base damage, only surpassed by the Alpha T-Rex and Giganotosaurus.
A Mosasaurus can kill a player within seconds if it manages to catch you off guard. Do not get too distracted with Deep Sea Loot Crates, or taming creatures.
Other animals like the Mosasaur can ruin such indulgences. While very bulky in both HP and strength it can't turn very fast making fast Megalodons very useful.
Luring it to an underwater cave and shooting it is an easy way to kill it as it cannot fit inside. For information pertaining specifically to the real-world Mosasaurus, see the relevant Wikipedia article.
Sign In. Jump to: navigation , search. Dossier Mosasaurus. These values may differ with what you see in-game or written elsewhere.
But that is what the dossier says. Release Versions. Torpor Immune. Taming Method. Preferred Kibble. Exceptional Kibble. Kibble Quetzal Egg.
Raw Mutton. Preferred Food. Raw Prime Meat. Unique Skins. Mosasaurus Bionic Costume.